The tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features that differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication.
Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and their superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.
The tongue is a vital organ that performs multiple actions such as articulation of speech, perception of taste, and formation of the food bolus. It is well protected from the external environment and enclosed in the oral cavity with palate on the superior aspect, floor of the mouth on the inferior aspect, mandibular teeth on the lateral aspects, pharyngeal region posteriorly, and the lips anteriorly. Biometric authentication is a method of personal identification and has gained popularity in recent years.
The necessity for security in cases of bank details, transactions, etc., has propelled the research in the field of biometrics. In biometric authentication, the input sample is compared against a sample template to identify the person. Fingerprint, palm print, iris scan, signature scan, etc., are the different biometric methods in use. Recently, there has been an increased interest in tongue prints as a biometric tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and their advantages over other biometric methods. Different methods of tongue print collection, classification, and its potential application in the field of forensic dentistry are also discussed.