Coffee production in Brazil is responsible for about a third of all coffee, making Brazil by far the world's largest producer, a position the country has held for the last 150 years. Coffee plantations, covering some 27,000 km2 (10,000 sq mi), are mainly located in the southeastern states of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, and Parana where the environment and climate provide ideal growing conditions. Brazil produces around 40% of the world's coffee production. It is a major exporter of coffee.
The crop first arrived in Brazil in the 18th Century and the country had become the dominant producer by the 1840s. Brazilian coffee prospered since the early 19th century when Italian immigrants came to work in the coffee plantations. Production as a share of world coffee output peaked in the 1920s but has declined since the 1950s due to increased global production.
Coffee was not native to the Americas and had to be planted in the country. The first coffee was grown by Native Americans. The first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in the state of Para in 1727. According to the legend, the Portuguese were looking for a cut of the coffee market, but could not obtain seeds from bordering French Guiana due to the governor's unwillingness to export the seeds. Palheta was sent to French Guiana on a diplomatic mission to resolve a border dispute. On his way back home, he managed to smuggle the seeds into Brazil by seducing the governor's wife who secretly gave him a bouquet spiked with seeds.