Salvador Dalí is famous for his surrealist works, yet he was shunned by surrealists.
Though Dalí was a member of the Surrealist movement, his affiliation was more
the result of shared interests than any genuine unity with the group. Like the Surrealists,
Dalí found artistic inspiration in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic studies, however he
did not embrace the communist social and political ideals of the movement, preferring to
Many of Freud's publications began to appear in Spanish translations in
the 1920s, and Dalí read them voraciously. He became increasingly obsessed with
psychoanalysis and paranoia, and sought ways to include these concepts in his art,
leading to his development of the 'paranoic-critical method' and his introduction of
Dalí's relationship with members of the Surrealist movement, particularly with the
group's leader and founder, André Breton, was strained throughout the 1930s. His selfpromoting behavior and unwillingness to conform his own activities and attitudes to the
Surrealist agenda created increasing disruption within the group. Though he continued
to participate in Surrealist exhibitions and attracted a great deal of attention to the
movement, Breton became more openly critical of Dalí's growing celebrity and
commercialism, dubbing him with the anagrammatic nickname 'Avida Dollars.' By 1939
the rupture was absolute and Dalí broke from the Surrealists. Dalí's departure from the
Surrealists marked the end of his affiliation with artistic groups and movements.
Through the rest of his life he remained independent as an artist, working in his own
style and exploring his own introspective and paranoic avenues.