The largest population of camels in the wild, estimated in 2013 at 300,000 individuals increasing at roughly 10 percent per year, is found in neither Arabia nor Mongolia, the traditional homelands of genuinely wild camels, but instead in the Australian desert. From the 1840s until the early 1900s, camels were imported into Australia principally for transportation purposes in the country's hot, arid deserts. As technology advanced, however, the camels were no longer needed as much and, consequently, many were released or escaped into the desert, where they bred and thrived in a feral state.
Camels in Australia are feral, not wild. Feral animals are domesticated animals living in the wild after escaping domestication or captivity.